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체르노빌 직후 세르비아가 채택한 원전금지제도

체르노빌 직후 세르비아가 채택한 원전금지제도

2020224

현재 세르비아에는 원자력 발전소가 없다.

이전에 Vinča Nuclear Institute는 소련이 공급한 두 개의 원자로(RA, RB)를 운영했었다. 그런데 1958년 10월 15일, 연구 원자로 중 하나에서 중대한 사고가 발생하여 6명의 근로자가 다량의 방사선에 노출되었고 그중 한 명은 바로 사망했다.
이후 원자력 연구 프로그램은 1968년에 끝났으며 원자로는 1984년에 꺼졌다.

1986년 체르노빌 사고 이후 원자력 사용의 금지에 대한 전국적인 캠페인이 진행되었고, 1989년 원자력 발전소 건설, 핵연료 제조 및 중고 핵연료 재처리시설을 금지하고 모든 활동을 범죄로 규정하는 법률을 규정하였다(구유고슬라비아).

유고슬라비아가 붕괴된 이후 1995년 3월 10일에 새로운 법이 채택되면서 핵 범죄와 관련된 논란이 있는 법령은 삭제했지만 이전의 유예권은 유지되었다.
대다수의 사람들과 정치인들이 여전히 원자력 사용에 대한 유예를 지지하고 있다.

즉, 세르비아는 체르노빌 이후 원전을 금지하는 법안을 제정하고 이를 오랫동안 운영해온 것이다. 유고슬라비아 시절부터 그랬던 것이다. 주변의 루마니아 헝가리 불가리아와는 다르다.

2005년 세르비아 공화국 의회는 이 법률을 세르비아 공화국 영토에서 시행하고 있다(Official Gazette FRY 12/95 and Official Gazette RS 85/05).
내용은 원자력 발전소, 핵연료 제조 공장 및 핵연료 사용 후 핵연료 재처리 공장의 건설을 금지하는 것이다.

그 결과 현재 세르비아 공화국의 원자력 발전소에 사용되는 원자력 연료를 관리하기 위한 모든 종류의 원자로 운영 및 시설에 대한 고려 또는 계획은 없다. 따라서 사용 후 핵연료 시설을 설치, 설계, 건설 또는 운영할 계획 또한 없다.

최근 러시아는 세르비아에 원자력 발전소가 아닌 연구용 원자로를 추진하고 있지만, 현재 규정에 따르면 세르비아에는 원자력 시설이 건설될 수 없다.

다만, 다만 지난 몇 년간 1995년 법을 폐지하거나 최소한 10년으로 제한하자는 움직임도 있었다. 2018년 5월 Atom Expo 회의에서 정부 간 협약으로 서명된 내용에는 원자력의 이용에 대한 기술적.가능성에 대한 검토가 있었지만 그 실행은 불투명하다.

<참고>

보고서 : “Republic of Serbia First National Report”, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management 발행, 2018년 March

위키백과 : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_energy_policy_by_country

뉴스 : https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Russia-and-Serbia-to-cooperate-in-nuclear-power

 

<그 밖에 세르비아 원전 관련 읽을거리>

(1) Serbian monitor.com
원문보기>> https://www.serbianmonitor.com/en/russia-building-a-nuclear-research-centre-in-serbia-not-a-nuclear-plant/

Russia building a nuclear research center in Serbia, not a nuclear plant

24/10/2019

Snezana Bjelotomic

Russia and Serbia will build a nuclear science, technologies and innovations centre in Vinca where a research reactor, but not a nuclear plant, will be built. The daily adds that the reactor will cost around EUR 300 million.

The so-called zero-power research reactor will produce radioactive isotopes for medicine and research.

The construction of a nuclear plant will nevertheless have to be considered at some point due to the decreasing supplies of fossil fuels, a Serbian nuclear physician told the Vecernje Novosti daily. As he said, the most logical location would be to build it somewhere along the Danube.

However, this would require a change in the regulations, because, according to the current ones, nuclear facilities may not be built in Serbia. The moratorium on the construction, adopted in 1989 as a consequence of the Chernobyl disaster, expired after 25 years when the Law on the Ban on Construction of Nuclear Power Plants was adopted.

If Serbia builds such a facility, it will have Russia’s support. A senior Russian government official, Sergei Prihotko, said Russia was ready to partner with Serbia in the construction of a nuclear power plant if it decides to launch a nuclear energy programme.

Otherwise, the agreement to build a science centre in Vinca was signed by Minister of Innovation Nenad Popovic and CEO of Russia’s state corporation Rosatom Alexei Lihachov.

The center, according to Rosatom, will have a multi-purpose research reactor filled with pressurized water, with all associated systems, equipment and laboratories.

“The Center for Nuclear Sciences, Technology and Innovation, which we will jointly build in Serbia, is an innovative project based on the most advanced nuclear technologies. The project is the result of our long-term cooperation in this area and the traditionally good ties between Russian and Serbian nuclear scientists,” said Lihachov, adding that both sides are resolved to put this project into practice as soon as possible.

(Vecernje Novosti, 23.10.2019)

주요내용

  • 러시아가 세르비아에 원자력 발전소가 아닌 연구용 원자로를 설립할 예정이다
  • 현재 규정에 따르면 세르비아에는 원자력 시설이 건설될 수 없기 때문에 규제의 변경이 필요하다
  • 1989년에 채택된 원자력 관련 건설에 대한 법률은 채택된 후 25년 후에 만료되었다
  • 시설은 러시아의 지원을 받게 될 것이다

 

(2) 유럽의 원자력
원문보기>> https://www.climatesceptics.org/location/europe/serbia

Minister rules out construction of nuclear plant

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

JAGODINA — Minister of Energy, Development and Environmental Protection Zorana Mihajlović says that the construction of a nuclear power plant in Serbia is out of question.

Mihajlović dismissed the possibility of building a nuclear power plant in Serbia not only for environmental reasons but also because the construction would be extremely expensive.

In addition to this, Serbia lacks experts in this field, and the issue of radioactive waste would also come to the forefront, Mihajlović said in a TV panel discussion held Thursday evening in Jagodina.

“I don’t think it would be good to build a nuclear power plant here”, the energy minister said.

She said that Serbia refused to participate in the construction of a nuclear plant in Bulgaria. In her opinion, it would be a waste of money, and the funds could be used to build not one, but two hydroelectric power stations.

“Let us make use of what we have and what is more environment-friendly,” said Mihajlović, pointing out that the capacities Serbia plans to build would generate enough electricity, even for export.

The Energy Ministry’s priorities are the construction of the 600 MW thermal power plant “Stavalj”, which will use high-quality zero-emission coal, the 600 MW reversible hydroelectric power plant Bistrica, and the Novi Sad thermal power plants, she explained, noting that the plants are expected to employ several thousand people.

Mihajlović also emphasized that the government will not sell the Electric Power Industry of Serbia (EPS) and the natural gas provider Srbijagas “because they can help drive the development of Serbia”.

주요 내용

  • 세르비아 환경보호부 장관은 세르바아 원자력 발전소 건설에 문제가 있다고 말했다. 환경적 이유뿐만 아니라 건축 비용이 매우 비싸기 때문에 세르비아에 원자력 발전소를 건설할 가능성을 무시했다
  • 세르비아는 더 환경친화적인 것을 활용할 것으로 비용은 두 개의 수력발전소를 건설하는데 사용될 것으로 보았다

 

Russian-backed nuclear plant “more than hypothetical”

Thursday, June 27, 2013

MOSCOW — The prospects for cooperation between Serbia and Russia are better than ever, Serbian Foreign Minister Ivan Mrkić said ahead of his visit to Russia.

“We created the prerequisites for the closest possible cooperation between our two countries and peoples. Our presidents – Putin and Nikolić – have recently signed the declaration on strategic partnership, Serbia has quite high trade with the Russian Federation, and our economy is linked to the Russian market,” Mrkić told Itar-Tass.

The two countries are bound by excellent spiritual, cultural and historical ties, Mrkić said, underscoring that he sees only good in building the joint future.

Mrkić will speak at a conference on nuclear energy in 21st century which is being held in St. Petersburg.

The conference will address the issues relating to peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, and opinions will be exchanged on energy-related issues, the role and exploitation of nuclear energy in the context of global development, Mrkić said.

The conference will place a special emphasis on the influence that the use of nuclear energy might have on environment, the Serbian foreign minister said.

The conference will also be attended by Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin and Sergei Kirilenko, the managing director of the state nuclear energy corporation Rosatom, Mrkić said, adding that he will “certainly meet them.”

Asked whether his participation in the conference means that Serbia is interested in building a nuclear power plant with Russia’s assistance, Mrkić underscored that the law in Serbia prohibits the construction of such facilities, which means that any talk about a possible building of a plant in the territory of Serbia is “more than hypothetical.”

Itar-Tass said that the Serbian minister stated the delegation intended to discuss the use of nuclear energy and exchange views on key issues related to the energy sector and the use of atomic energy in the context of global development.

“Special attention will be paid to the atom’s impact on the environment. Despite all risks and problems related to the use of nuclear energy, many countries count on this source. Thus, Serbia intends to focus on safety of nuclear power plants and the non-proliferation of nuclear materials,” Mrkić stressed.

주요 내용

  • 세르비아 외무부 장관은 회의에서 세르비아가 러시아 도움을 받아 원자력 발전소를 짓는 것에 관심이 있는지 질문을 받았을 때, 세르비아의 법이 그러한 시설의 건설의 금지한다는 점을 강조하며 가설일 뿐이라고 말했다

 

(3) 세르비아 에너지 홈페이지
원문보기>> https://serbia-energy.eu/serbia-green-party-pushes-for-extension-of-moratorium-on-nuclear-power-in-serbia/

Serbia: Green party pushes for extension of moratorium on nuclear power in Serbia

6. May 2015.

The Green party of Serbia will use the Chernobyl catastrophic nuclear accident anniversary to highlight the deleterious effects of the nuclear energy use. MP (Member of Parliament) and president of the Greens of Serbia, Ivan Karic, submitted a request for extension of the twenty five years’ moratorium, or he will submit a proposal for the adoption of the new Law on the Prohibition of the nuclear power plant construction in the Republic of Serbia. The moratorium expired at the end of last year. Such a prohibition would enable more decisive focus of the decision-makers on renewable energy.

The Greens of Serbia argue that we need an energy system that can cope with climate change, based on renewable energy sources and energy efficiency. In Serbia, there is no scientific professional staff to build and operate in such facilities, and we would have to import the fuel. The biggest problem is the impact on the environment and human health, because science has not yet found a way for the safe disposal of nuclear waste. Since the 50s of XX century were identified over 30 incidents in nuclear power plants which show that this method of obtaining energy is very unsafe.

We are committed to stop the spread of nuclear power plants and the closure of the existing ones, and for the expansion of clean, safe, renewable energy sources. Globally the nuclear energy already has a smaller share than renewable energy sources, and this share will continue to decline in the coming years. The accident in Fukushima has been followed by a new wave of shutdowns of nuclear power plants. The Greens around the world always fought – and will continue to fight – vigorously against nuclear energy because we believe that it is an unacceptable risk to the environment and humanity, that is unprofitable and unnecessary.

주요 내용

  • 녹색당은 체르노빌 핵사고 기념일에 원자력 에너지 사용의 해로운 영향을 강조했다
  • 의회 의원과 녹색대표는 25년의 유예기간 연장을 요청하거나, 원자력 금지에 관한 새로운 법의 채택에 대한 제안을 제출할 예정이다. 세르비아 공화국의 건설에 관한 유예기간은 2014년에 만료되었다. 따라서 이러한 금지 결정은 재생가능 에너지에 초점을 둘 수 있게 한다
  • 세르비아 녹색당은 재생 가능 에너지원과 에너지 효율을 바탕으로 기후변화에 대처할 수 있는 에너지 시스템이 필요하다고 주장했다

 

(4) BalkanInsight
원문보기>> https://balkaninsight.com/2010/05/20/serbian-interest-in-bulgaria-nuclear-plant/

Serbian “Interest” in Bulgaria Nuclear Plant

Bojana Barlovac

May 20, 2010

Serbian Energy Minister Petar Skundric said that his country is still considering whether to accept Bulgaria’s offer to take part in the construction of a nuclear power plant in Belene.

Speaking at an annual conference on energy in Belgrade on Wednesday, Skundric noted that participation in the project would strengthen regional cooperation in the energy sector and establish a partnership relationship between Serbia and Bulgaria.

“We haven’t made the decision yet, but we are interested,” the minister said.

The 2,000 megawatt nuclear plant, located at Belene on the Danube river, was originally set to be built by Russian company Atomstroiexport at a cost of €4 billion; the firm had signed a contract with the previous Socialist led government.

The project was stalled when the Socialist government was defeated in elections in July and a new government led by the conservative GERB party put in place.

The new prime minister rejected the offer made by Moscow for a stake in the plant and there have been numerous speculations about which investor will finish the construction.

Earlier this month, Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov officially made an offer for Serbia to participate in financing the construction of the Belene plant and said that Serbia had expressed interest in a 5 per cent stake in the project.

If Serbia decided to participate in the construction, it would not violate the country’s moratorium on nuclear construction on Serbian territory until 2015, which was put in place after the Chernobyl disaster.

“It would be a good reference for us and allow us to respect the embargo,” the Serbian minister said.

Skundric added that a loan to finance Serbia’s role in the project was discussed with Chinese representatives during his recent visit to the country. However, no deal has been reached on the issue.

China previously approved an €800 million loan to boost the capacity of Serbia’s 1,010 megawatt coal-fired power plant in the town of Kostolac, with the final contract expected to be signed in July.

주요 내용

  • 세르비아 에너지 장관은 벨렌(Belene)에 원자력 발전소 건설에 참여하겠다는 불가리아의 제안을 받아들일 것인지 여부를 여전히 고려하고 있다고 밝혔다
  • 베오그라드에서 열린 에너지 관련 연례 회의에서 이 프로젝트에 참여하면 에너지 부문의 지역 협력이 강화되고 세르비아와 불가리아 사이의 파트너십 관계가 형성될 것이라고 언급하며, 아직 결정을 내리지 않았지만 관심이 있다고 말했다
  • 다뉴브강 벨렌(Belene)에 위치한 2,000메가 와트 원자력 발전소는 원래 러시아 회사인 Atomstroiexport에 의해 40억 유로의 비용으로 건설되었는데 새정부가 세워지면서 프로젝트가 중단되었다
  • 불가리아 총리는 세르비아에게 벨렌 공장건설에 자금을 지원할 것을 제안했으며, 세르비아가 이 프로젝트 지분의 5%에 관심을 표명했다고 밝혔다
  • 세르비아가 건설에 참여하기로 결정한다면, 체르노빌 재해 이후 발생한 2015년까지의 세르비아 핵건설에 대한 국가 모라토리엄은 위반하지 않는 것이다

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